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'가야금.' Gayageum.

가야금

가야금(伽倻琴)은 한국의 전통 현악기이다. 가얏고라고도 한다. <삼국사기>의 기록에 따르면, 가야금은 가야의 가실왕의 명령을 받아 우륵이 만들었다고 기록되어 있다.

가야가 망한 후 우륵은 신라로 망명하였고, 진흥왕에 의해 가야금이 전파되었다. 이후 가야금은 일본에까지 전해졌는데, 일본에서는 이를 신라금(新羅琴)이라고 한다. 전통 가야금은 정악가야금(법금)과 산조가야금이라는 12현이지만, 최근 들어 15현, 17/18현, 21/22현, 25현의 개량 가야금도 쓰이고 있다. 모든 줄이 안족(기러기발)에 얹혀 있어 음의 높낮이를 조절할 수 있다. 가야금의 울림통은 오동나무이고 12개의 현은 명주실로 만든다. 정악 가야금은 오동나무의 뒷면을 파고 안족을 얹혀 만드는데, 주로 줄풍류나 가곡반주에 쓰였다.하배황(㣴,Eb)부터 중(仲,Ab)까지를 연주할 수 있다. 산조가야금은 산조나민요, 시나위 합주에 쓰기 편하도록 줄 사이가 좁고 길이도 짧게 만든 가야금이다.

연주법은 정좌하여 오른편 무릎위에 악기의 상단을 올려놓고 오른손의 집게 엄지 가운데 손가락 등으로 밀고 뜯고 퉁기며 소리를 내고, 왼손은 안족 아래 부분의 줄을 누르거나 흔들어준다. 증보문헌비고에 의한 악기 분류법 중 사부에 속한다.

가야금 산조

한국의 가야금 산조는 가야금의 유일한 독주곡이다. 작곡자의 이름을 딴 유파로 구분하여 부른다. 대표적인 유파로는 성금련류, 강태홍류, 김죽파류, 최옥삼류, 김병호류, 김윤덕류,서공철류, 황병기류 등 이 있다.

 

Gayageum

The gayageum or kayagum is a traditional Korean zither-like string instrument, with 12 strings, although more recently variants have been constructed with 21 or other numbers of strings. It is probably the best known traditional Korean musical instrument.It is in the zither family. It is very similar to the Japanese koto and the Chinese guzheng, or table harp, where it is widely believed to have come from.

History

According to the Samguksagi (1145), a history of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, the gayageum is supposed to have been developed around the 6th century in the Gaya confederacy by King Gasil (also known as Haji of Daegaya) after he observed an old Chinese instrument, a guzheng. He then ordered a musician named Ureuk to compose music that could be played on the instrument.

The gayageum was then further improved by Wu Ruk during the reign of Jinheung in the Silla Dynasty.

The ancient gayageum of King Gashil was called by several names, including beopgeum (law-zither, 법금), pungnyu (elegance, 풍류), or jeong-ak (right music, 정악) gayageum. It is normally associated with court music, chamber music, and lyric songs, for which it provides the accompaniment. This type of gayageum has a wider spacing between the strings and plays slower tempo music such as Yeongsan-hoesang and Mit-doduri.

The sanjo gayageum is believed to have evolved in the 19th century with the emergence of sanjo music, literally means scattered melodies, a musical form involving some improvisation. For the sanjo gayageum, the closer spacing of the strings and shorter length of the instrument enables a musician to play the faster passages required for sanjo (Choi 2005). The sanjo gayageum is now the most wide spread form of gayageum.(KCMPC 2001). All traditional gayageum use silk strings, although, since the late 20th century, the silk strings may be replaced with nylon strings.

Modern versions of the gayageum, which have a greater number of strings, often use nylon-wrapped steel strings, similar to those used for the Chinese guzheng (Choi 2005). Brass strings have also been introduced to produce a louder sound, which is preferred for accompanying dance (Park 2004). To play modern music, gayageum with a greater number of strings have been developed, increasing the instrument's range. Gayageum are available with 13, 17, 18, 21, 22, or 25 strings (Choi 2005), although instruments with more strings are also available on custom-made basis.photo of gayageum with 25 strings The 21 string gayageum is normally found in North Korea.

Construction

The beobgeum gayageum is 160cm wide by 30cm broad by 10cm high. Its body is made from a single piece of paulownia wood. The resonator chamber is hollowed out of the piece of paulownia. The sanjo gayageum is about 142cm wide by 23cm broad by 10cm high. It has the soundboard made of paulownia, but uses a harder wood such as chestnut or walnut for the sides and the back, so the resonator chamber is made of both (Choi 2005) (KCMPC 2001).

On the soundboard, Anjok (movable bridges) support the strings. These bridges may be moved to adjust the tuning. The strings enter the top of the body, and underneath are Tolgwae (tuning pegs). At the other end, the strings are wound around free floating pegs, looped through holes at the bottom of the instrument, and then the strings are all tied in a coil (Choi 2005) (KCMPC 2001).

The left hand is used by pressing the strings and its finger movements can be made various types of movements such as shaking, bending, vibrating the strings. The right hand is used in plucking or stromping the strings. The tone of the Gayageum is soft, delicate and subtle. It is said that Gayageum was made by King Kasil in the Kaya Kingdom around the 6th century and then it has been developed by Ureuk in the time of King of Jinhung in the Silla dynasty. However, there is evidence that its use must have traced back to much earlier time than the time of the Silla dynasty, as shown in the recent archeological excavations in the Kwangsan areas in Jeolla-namdo Province, where some fragments of a Gayageum used in around 1st century BCE were found. The Gayageum is employed in three different types of music:

for Sanjo- Gayageum which is completed in relatively recent time;
for Pungryu-Gayageum which is the original one. The size of the former is smaller than that of latter. In the case of Sanjo- Gayageum, the gap between the two adjacent strings is narrow, so that is suits the music with swift tempo as in "sok-ak" such as Sanjo, Sinawi. By contrast, in the case of the latter the gap of two strings is so great that it suits the music, "Jeong-ak" with slow tempo such as Yeongsan-hoesang, Mit-doduri, and so forth.
Newly in order to play the contemporary music, strings are added into a Gayageum by making its body much broader, known as "isibil hyongeum [21 string instrument]", so that its range is greater. The Gayageum is used not only in ensemble music such as Gayageumbyeongchang but also as solo such as the Gayageum-sanjo.

원본: 위키피디아 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia