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'거문고.' Geomungo.

거문고

거문고는 낮고 중후한 소리부터 높은 소리까지 넓은 옥타브의 소리를 내는 한국의 전통 악기이다. 현금(玄琴)이라고도 한다, 증보문헌비고에 의한 악기 분류법 중 사부에 속한다.

유래

삼국사기에 의하면 왕산악(王山岳)이 중국 악기인 칠현금(七絃琴)을 개조하여 거문고를 만들었다. 본래 4현 17괘였으나 지금은 6현 16괘로 바뀌었다. 칠현금은 있으나 연주할 수 있는 사람이 아무도 없음을 왕이 슬퍼하자, 왕산악이 그 주법을 바꾸고 100여곡을 작곡하여 바치며 왕 앞에서 연주하니, 이윽고 검은 학이 날아들었다는 전설이 있다. 검은 학이 날아들었다 하여 '현학금'이라 부르다가, '검은(학)고', '거문고'로 불린다는 설과, 고구려의 옛 이름인 '검', '곰'과 현악기를 뜻하는 '고'가 합쳐져 만들어진 말로서 '고구려의 현악기'라는 뜻으로 불린다는 설이 있다.

Geomungo

The geomungo (also spelled komungo or kŏmun'go) or hyeongeum (literally "black zither", also spelled hyongum or hyŏn'gŭm) is a traditional Korean stringed musical instrument of zither family instrument with both bridges and frets. Scholars believe that the name refers to Goguryeo and translates to "Goguryeo zither" or that it refers to the colour and translates to "black crane zither".

History

The instrument originated circa the fourth century (see Anak Tomb No.3 infra) through the 7th century from the kingdom of Goguryeo, the northernmost of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, although the instrument can be traced back to the 4th century.

According to the Samguk Sagi (Chronicles of the Three Kingdoms), written in 1145, the geomungo was invented by prime minister Wang San-ak by using the form of the ancient Chinese instrument guqin (also called chilhyeongeum, literally "seven-string zither"). After his death, the instrument was passed down to Ok Bogo, Son Myeong-deuk, Gwi Geum, An Jang, Cheong Jang, and Geuk Jong, while being widely spread over the kingdom.

Archetype of the instrument is painted in Goguryeo tombs. They are found in the tomb of Muyongchong and Anak Tomb No.3.

Construction

The geomungo is approximately 162 cm long and 23 cm wide (63.75 inches long, 9 inches wide), and has movable bridges called Anjok and 16 convex frets. It has a hollow body where the front plate of the instrument is made of paulownia wood and the back plate is made of hard chestnut wood. Its six strings, which are made of twisted silk passed through its back plate. The pick is made from bamboo sticks in the size of regular household pencil.

Playing

The geomungo is generally played while seated on the floor. The strings are plucked with a short bamboo stick called suldae, which is held between the index and middle fingers of the right hand, while the left hand presses on the strings to produces various pitches. The most typical tuning of the open strings for the traditional Korean music is D#/Eb, G#/Ab, C, A#/Bb, A#/Bb, and A#/Bb an octave lower than the central tone. The instrument is played in traditional Korean court music and the folk styles of sanjo and sinawi.

Due to its characteristically percussive sound and vigorous playing technique it is thought of as a more "masculine" instrument than the 12-string gayageum (another Korean zither); both instruments, however, are played by both male and female performers.

원본: 위키피디아 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia