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'장구.' Janggu.

장구

장구는 한국 전통 음악에서 널리 사용되는 타악기로 장고(杖鼓/長鼓), 세요고(細腰鼓)라고도 불린다.

구조

오동나무 통 가운데를 잘룩하게 깎아서 양쪽에 가죽을 대고 줄을 사용하여 조여서 모양을 만드는데, 가운데가 잘룩하게 들어가서 세요고라고 부르기도 하고, 여기에 사용되는 가죽이 노루가죽이나 개가죽을 사용하여 장구(獐狗)라고 불리기도 한다고 한다. 요즘에는 노루가죽은 거의 쓰지 않고, 일반적으로 소가죽, 양가죽, 개가죽을 사용을 한다.

통은 중심에서 왼쪽이 오른쪽 보다 약간 가늘고 길게 파는데, 요즘은 좌우 구분이 없는 경우도 많다. 그러나 가죽은 왼쪽은 두꺼운 것을 써서 낮고 부드러운 소리가 나고, 오른쪽은 얇은 것을 써서 높고 날카로운 소리가 난다.

낮은 소리가 나는 쪽을 궁편, 높은 소리가 나는 쪽을 채편(혹은 열편)이라고 한다. 궁편은 궁채(궁그리채) 또는 손바닥으로 치며, 채편은 열채를 사용하여 친다.

궁편

궁편(또는 "북편"이라고도 한다)을 치는 도구로 "궁채"라는 명칭 외에 "궁그리채"라고도 불린다. 약 30cm의 대나무 뿌리 한쪽 끝에 박달나무를 배가 불룩하게 나온 원통모양으로 둥글게 깎은 궁알을 달고, 다른 한편은 손잡이를 붙여 만든다. 간편하게 대량생산을 위해 대나무 뿌리 대신 대나무 재질의 막대기를 사용하기도 한다. 궁알 위쪽 또는 손잡이 끝부분에 색실로 술을 달아 장식하기도 한다..

열채

열채는 대나무를 깎아서 만든다. 길이는 30~40cm로 두께는 0.2~0.3cm로 손잡이는 넓게, 그리고 채편을 때리는 부분은 가늘게 깎아낸다. 일반적으로 대나무 마디가 끝나는 부분을 이용하여 끝부분을 약간 뭉툭하게 만든다..

연주

궁편은 소리의 강약 외에는 음색을 조절하기 힘들지만, 채편은 치는 방법에 따라 음색을 몇가지로 조절하여 연주를 한다. 이런 소리의 조합으로 타악기 중에서 가장 다양한 음색을 내는 까닭에 한국음악에서 타악 반주에 가장 많이 쓰인다.

Janggu

The janggu (or janggo; also spelled changgo) or sometimes called seyogo (slim waist drum) is the most widely used drum used in the traditional music of Korea. It is available in most kinds, and consists of an hourglass-shaped body with two heads made from animal skin. The two heads produce sounds of different pitch and timbre, which when played together are believed to represent the harmony of man and woman.

History

The first depiction of the instrument is on a bell belonging to the Silla (57 BC–935 AD) period and in a mural painting of the same period in Goguryeo (37 BC–935 AD) tomb. The oldest Korean historical records about an hourglass-shaped drum may be traced to the reign of King Munjong (1047–1084) of Goryeo as a field instrument. The Goryeo-sa (1451), or History of Goryeo, in chapter 70, records twenty janggu as part of a gift of instruments to be used in royal banquet music from the Song Dynasty Emperor Huizong to the Goryeo Court in Gaeseong in 1114. This book represents the earliest appearance of the word janggu in a Korean source. Later in chapter 80, for the year 1076, the term janggu-opsa (one who plays or teaches the janggu) is used.

The janggu may have evolved from the yogo (hanja: 腰鼓; literally "waist drum"), another similar but smaller Korean drum that is still in use today. The yogo is presumed to have originated from the idakka, an Indian instrument introduced into Korea from India through China during the Silla (57 BC–935 AD) period. Evident of the yogo was depicted on the mural paintings in the tomb of Jipanhyun of Goguryeo, and from the pictures at the Gameun Temple, the Relics of Buddha, made of bronze metal in the second year of King Mun (682) during the Unified Silla. It was during the time of Goryeo that the size of the Janggu had grown to its nowaday standard.

Construction

It is made from a hollow, hourglass-shaped wooden body of either porcelain, tile, metal, wood, guard, Popular choices are poplar and paulownia woods. However, paulownia is most popular because it is the lightest and the best resonating material that produces beautiful sounds.

Jorongmok is the round tube in the middle connecting the left and right side of the hourglass-shaped body. The size of the jorongmok determines the quality of the tone: the wider the tube, the deeper and huskier it sounds; the narrower the tube, the harder and snappier it sounds.

The two skin heads is lapped onto metal hoops placed over the open ends of the body and secured by rope counter-loops. The left head (boook side) is covered with a thick cowhide, horsehide, or deerskin to produce deep and low tones. The right side (chae side) is covered with either dog skin or a lighter horsehide to produces higher tones.

There are two kinds of beating sticks (chae), namely gungchae and yeolchae. The gungchae is shaped like a mallet with a round head. The handle is made from bamboo root, boiled and straightened out and the head is made from hardwood such as birch or antler. Modern gungchae may also be made from plastic; this variety is normally used by beginning musicians. The yeolchae is always made from bamboo.

Playing

Traditionally the janggu is played using yeolchae on the right hand high pitch area and uses bare hand on the low pitch area. Such example can be seen on pungmul players for a number of folk songs and shamanistic rituals. But today, it is common to see the use of gungchae and yeolchae together. 'Gungchae' is used to play the low pitch side. Janggu can be played on the floor such as for traditional sanjo music or carried with a strap on the shoulder. The way performers carry the Janggu differ from person to person, from region to region and varies depending on his/her taste.

The janggu is usually classified as accompanying instrument because of its flexible nature and its agility with complex rhythm.Since the performer can use his or her hands as well as sticks, various sounds and tempo, deep and full, soft and tender, menacing sounds, and fast and slow beats - can be created to suit the mood of the audience. Using this capability, a dextrous performer can dance along moving his/her shoulders up and down and make the audience carried away and dance along with him/her.

원본: 위키피디아 From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia